By Franz Rosenthal, Dimitri Gutas
In guy as opposed to Society in Medieval Islam, Franz Rosenthal (1914-2003) investigates the tensions and conflicts that existed among participants and society because the concentration of his learn of Muslim social heritage. The e-book brings jointly works spanning fifty years: the monographs The Muslim idea of Freedom, The Herb. cannabis as opposed to Medieval Muslim Society (Brill, 1971), playing in Islam (Brill, 1975), and Sweeter than wish. grievance and desire in Medieval Islam (Brill,1983), besides the entire articles on unsanctioned practices, sexuality, and institutional studying. Reprinted the following jointly for the 1st time, they represent the main wide choice of resource fabric on a lot of these subject matters from all genres of Arabic writing, judiciously translated and analyzed. No different learn to this point provides the landscape of medieval Muslim societies of their manifold points in as particular, entire, and illuminating a manner.
Author: Franz Rosenthal. Edited by means of Dimitri Gutas.
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Additional info for Man Versus Society in Medieval Islam
The various topics that were to be treated in that work are not difficult to guess. Some material has been collected by me, and the one or other of the relevant topics will, perhaps, be treated by me in the course of time. It is certainly hoped that other scholars will work on them. But I do not think that it will be possible for me to bring to a satisfactory conclusion a comprehensive work such as I had envisaged. I have, therefore, decided to publish this introductory chapter, which I feel can stand on its own feet.
On the contrary, wherever the concept was effective as an historical force, there was, of necessity, an interaction between the various “levels” of freedom. 2 One of them is the philosophical/ontological, to which Islam and other religious societies add the theological/metaphysical speculation concerning freedom; the other is the sociological level. Muslims, in general, were disposed toward maintaining a strict separation between the two levels. In Islam, the concept of free will and freedom of choice is expressed by a word different from that used for social freedom, as will be discussed later on.
10 It may be remarked in passing that the idea of freedom as submission to and dependence on the divine is not of recent origin. 10a Thus, the Babylonian Rabbi, Aḥâ bar Yaʿaqôḇ, who lived around 300ad, suggested that the tables of the Law were beyond the power of foreign nations and tongues because the word “graven” (ḥārûṯ), in Ex. 11 Consequently, the Law is freedom, and submission to the Law is freedom. 13 It has found its most striking expression in the story about the Ṣûfî, Luqmân as-Sarakhsî, who asked for freedom from the service of God, from his status of slave with respect to God.