By Daniele Fioretti
This publication is ready the presence of utopian and dystopian components within the Italian literary panorama. It makes a speciality of 4 authors which are representatives of many of the positions within the Italian cultural debate: Pasolini, Calvino, Sanguineti, and Volponi. What did techniques like utopia and dystopia suggest for those authors? Is it attainable to split utopia from dystopia? what's the position of technological know-how fiction during this debate? This ebook solutions those questions, offering an unique interpretation of utopia and of the social position of literature. The ebook additionally takes into account 4 of the main influential literary journals in Italy: Officina, il menabò, il verri, and Nuovi Argomenti, that performed a crucial position within the cultural and political debate on utopia in Italy.
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Additional resources for Utopia and Dystopia in Postwar Italian Literature: Pasolini, Calvino, Sanguineti, Volponi
The existence of the subconscious undermined the centrality of reason in our life as well as classical utopias, which were usually centered on rationality. Even more important is Freud’s critique of the idea that the human nature is good. According to Freud there is an element of aggressiveness that is an integral part of human nature, an element which cannot be eliminated with any law or social reform. Freud also disagreed with the utopian proposal of the abolition of property. In fact, in his essay Das Unbehagen in der Kultur (Civilization and its Discontents, 1930), Freud wrote: “by abolishing private property one deprives the human love of aggression of one of its instruments, a strong one undoubtedly, but assuredly not the strongest.
In other words, Mannheim tried to move away from the relativist perspective putting the group, and not the individual, at the center of his analysis. However, he never explained why he was so sure that a social group should be immune from the false representations that characterize the individual. It is certain though that, even if Mannheim was skeptical about the possibility of ﬁnding the absolute truth, this truth must exist even if unobtainable. ” The aporetic side of Mannheim’s thought is clear: he claimed that every point of view is, by nature, ideological.
Actually, the socialist theories alternative to Marxism were not utopians per se; according to Engels these theories were “predestined” to utopia because of their lack of scientiﬁc rigor, and because they tended to transcend the historical context in favor of more absolute concepts like Truth and Justice. On the contrary, Engels wrote, “to make a science of socialism, it had ﬁrst to be placed upon a real basis” (Engels 43–44). The point here is that Marxism tended to dismiss utopia in favor of a more “scientiﬁc” approach.