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By Adolf Portmann

The rugged define of a mountain height seems like a human face; the markings on a moth convey a cranium and crossbones. Mere coincidences we are saying, and push aside the problem as one other freak of nature. but if we come upon an animal that appears like a leaf or a spray, we start to ask yourself. This likeness has to be greater than chance--it needs to play a major half within the animal's survival. This brings us immediately to the crux of our challenge: the functionality of outward appearances.

We have all noticeable bugs which are the colour of bark and brooding pheasant hens whose feathers look like the fleeting shadows in their nesting flooring. We can have chanced upon a moth whose in simple terms safety is the coloring that makes it resemble a wasp. each one of those animals pretends to be anything it's not, and it does this with a purpose to live on. glossy armies use camouflage to guard their infantrymen, weapons, ships, and armed forces installations; the result's evidence optimistic of the protective worth of such concepts. The reader usually are not shocked then, if we inform him that our topic has performed a favorite half in all discussions in regards to the foundation and the evolution of residing organisms. Charles Darwin used to be one of many first to emphasize the significance of camouflage, and because his day the topic has shaped one of many strands of organic concept.

This isn't really to claim that the professionals all agree. What a few decide to clarify as camouflage, others describe in altogether varied phrases. a number of experimenters has got down to turn out some of the theories, yet continuously with ideal clinical detachment. the matter of mimicry, particularly, has turn into a veritable no man's land of organic battle.

These are issues our ebook will discover. Casting our look over an enormous canvas, we will try and hint the
meaning of a few of the colourful brush strokes that went into its portray.

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Since only the underside is marked the insect must stretch its thorax and throw back its head in order to exhibit its flower display in the brightest possible light. The forelegs are kept in the usual folded position typical of the praying mantis. Occasionally, the insect will sway its abdomen from side to side. Just as butterflies settle in bright sunlight, so this -60Questia Media America, Inc. com Publication Information: Book Title: Animal Camouflage. Contributors: Adolf Portmann - author. Publisher: University of Michigan Press.

On rocky coasts the dense undergrowth of algae harbors a whole host of camouflaged animals ( Fig. 56 ), first and foremost among which are a number of marine -48Questia Media America, Inc. com Publication Information: Book Title: Animal Camouflage. Contributors: Adolf Portmann - author. Publisher: University of Michigan Press. Place of Publication: Ann Arbor, MI. Publication Year: 1959. Page Number: 48. 46 title snails (opisthobranchiates) with short disappearing flaps or flanges. Examples are the green Elysia snail and the sea hare (Aplysia) whose color may be red, olive green, or dark brown, according to age.

41 title Geometrid moths have their own way of imitating leaves. For instance, a South American kind ( Oxidia, Fig. 48 ) exhibits its upper side, which has a pronounced central stripe, adding greatly to the desired effect, as the moth settles on a branch in its typical position. Special mention must be made of the walking leaf (Phyllium), an Australian orthopterous insect ( Fig. 49 ). The walking leaf differs from our other examples in that only the female, which is unable to fly, resembles a leaf.

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