By Beat Hintermann
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Additional info for Top Quark Physics at Hadron Colliders
The calorimeter is divided into three parts: the central calorimeter (CC, |ηdet | < 1) and the two end calorimeters (ECs), extending the coverage to |ηdet | ≈ 4 (Fig. 46). They consist of an inner electromagnetic (EM) section, a ﬁne hadronic (FH) section, and a coarse hadronic (CH) section. The absorber in the EM and FH sections is depleted Uranium; in the CH section, it is a mixture of stainless steel and Copper. 4 interaction lengths of Uranium and Copper. The active medium in all cases is liquid argon.
Three distinct levels form this new trigger system with each succeeding level examining fewer events but in greater detail and with more complexity. The ﬁrst stage (Level 1 or L1) comprises a collection of hardware trigger elements that provide a trigger accept rate of 2 kHz. 2 µs, using ﬁeld programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). 2. In the second stage (Level 2 or L2), hardware engines and embedded microprocessors associated with speciﬁc sub-detectors provide information to a global processor to construct a trigger decision based on individual objects as well as object correlations.
The TOF is mainly used for heavy ﬂavour physics and for searches for new phenomena, such as stable heavy particle production in CDF. The calorimeter system. 64. 3). The central electromagnetic calorimeter  (CEM, see Fig. 41) uses lead sheets interspersed with polystyrene scintillator as the active medium and em2 ct m = pc − 1, where p is the particle momentum from L the tracker, t is the time of ﬂight from the TOF, L is the path length, and c is the speed of light. 14 A. Quadt: Top quark physics at hadron colliders 29 Fig.