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By Alfred Stein, Freek van der Meer, A. Stein, Freek D. van der Meer, Ben Gorte

This publication is a suite of papers on spatial facts for distant sensing. The e-book emerges from a research day that was once prepared in 1996 on the overseas Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences, ITC, in Enschede, The Netherlands. It was once by means of numerous ability a memorable occasion. the gorgeous new construction, in line with a layout by means of the recognized smooth Dutch architect Max van Huet was once simply opened, and this workshop was once the 1st to ensue there. after all, a lot went mistaken through the workshop, particularly because the most modern digital gear usually failed. however the workshop attrackted greater than hundred attendants, and was once regularly good got. the result of the workshop were released in Stein et al. (1998). the purpose of the workshop was once to deal with problems with spatial information for distant sensing. The ITC has a protracted background on accumulating and reading satellite tv for pc and different distant sensing info, yet its involvement into spatial statistics is of a newer date. Uncertainties in distant sensing photographs and the massive quantities of knowledge in lots of spectral bands are actually thought of to be of such an impression that it calls for a separate process from a statistical perspective. to cite from the justification of the learn day, we learn: smooth conversation ability similar to distant sensing require a complicated use of amassed information. Satellites acquire info with various answer on diversified spectral bands.

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The choice of using either the raster structure or the vector structure to model geographical information used to be an important conceptual and technical issue. At present, the data structures are no longer seen as mutually exclusive alternatives [60]. 1 summarizes how both structures enable representation of all three geographical data models. In addition, earlier problems regarding the quality of graphical output and data storage requirements of raster systems have largely been overcome with today’s computer hardware and software.

This will be elaborated on below. Of importance is the pixel’s ground resolution in comparison with spatial variability of the geographical phenomena of interest. In this context, [354] distinguished between H – and L –resolution situations. The former corresponds to the case in which geographical objects are larger than the ground resolution cells. L–resolution refers to the opposite case. L–resolution obviously leads to a mixed pixel problem, where it is not possible to extract information about individual objects from the image.

Chapter 4: Remote Sensing and GIS 43 The vector structure (Fig. 1) uses points, lines and polygons to describe geographical phenomena. The geometry of these elementary units is explicitly and precisely defined in the database. Points are geometrically represented by an coordinate pair, lines consist of a series of points connected by edges and polygons consist of one or more lines that together form a closed loop. The thematic attribute data of a vector unit reside in one or more related records.

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