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Additional info for Emergent semantics: interoperability in large-scale decentralized information systems

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Queries can be propagated through the semantic graph in various ways, depending on the query forwarding paradigm in use. 3 A logical semantic graph, where schemas are interlinked by schema mappings provided by the peers. Semantic Gossiping 39 a query irrespective of its content within a certain radius with a constant Time-To-Live (TTL) value is highly inefficient: for low TTL values, recall [Rij79] is low since the system cannot reach all databases relevant to the query. A high TTL value, on the other hand, potentially forwards the query through many incomplete or unsound mappings, ultimately resulting in the retrieval of many irrelevant results (low precision).

We analyze to which degree query constituents are preserved during reformulation (Sect. 4). (2) A semantic analysis of composite reformulations along cycles in the schema mapping graph, in order to determine the level of agreement that the peers achieve throughout the cycle. We analyze whether cyclic transformations preserve semantics. If the semantics of a query are not preserved after a cyclic series of reformulations, it is assumed that a certain semantic confusion has occurred (Sect. 1). (3) A semantic analysis of search results obtained through composite mapping reformulations.

1 Mapping Completeness Schema mappings cannot always reformulate all the constituents of a query. They can be incomplete for several reasons: for large schemas or ontologies, certain mappings can be specifically designed to handle the reformulation of only some of the attributes, while ignoring the rest of the schema. Since the information sources are considered as autonomous in our setting, they can structure their data according to their own preference and activities. g. epistemic or metaphysical differences on a given modeling problem [Bou04]) among the databases.

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