By S. Anantha Ramakrishna
Ever because the first experimental demonstration was once stated in 2000, the curiosity in metamaterials and left-handed media that convey a adverse refractive index has elevated exponentially. Surveying this explosive progress, Physics and purposes of adverse Refractive Index Materials covers the basic actual rules and rising engineering purposes of based electromagnetic metamaterials that yield a damaging refraction in addition to different unforeseen actual houses. It presents distinct motives at the background, improvement, and major achievements of metamaterials.
Making it effortless to entry correct, updated info at the box, the authors collect an important and influential papers regarding metamaterials. They current the rules of unfavorable refraction and examine the distinctiveness of novel metamaterials with different media that convey comparable homes. The ebook discusses the layout, optimization, and trying out of dependent metamaterials in addition to functions of metamaterials at frequencies starting from radio wave to optical. It additionally explores novel strategies and phenomena, equivalent to definitely the right lens for super-resolution imaging, hyper lenses that couple the near-field to radiative modes, electromagnetic cloaking and invisibility, and near-field optical imaging.
Connecting theoretical rules to contemporary experimental options and effects, this state of the art e-book permits an figuring out of the fundamental rules of and learn contributions to metamaterials with detrimental refractive index and their electromagnetic properties.
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Extra info for Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials
In this case, however, the group velocity loses its meaning as signal velocity, which has to be deﬁned in terms of the electromagnetic energy ﬂow. 5. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 24 Introduction Finally, let us mention that the deﬁnition of the group velocity can be generalized to a vectorial relation as vg = ∇k ω. 25) This gradient relationship indicates that the direction of the group velocity is normal to the iso-frequency contour in the spectral domain. 2 for example. 1 Metamaterials and homogenization procedure General concepts One of the crucial ideas in a homogenization procedure is that the wavelength of radiation is several times, preferably several orders of magnitude, larger than the underlying polarizable objects (such as atoms and molecules).
Therefore, the model should also be tested a posteriori. 2. The determination (or retrieval) of the corresponding constitutive parameters, in their tensorial form in the most general case, using numerical or analytical algorithms. The ﬁrst aspect is as important as the second and should not be overlooked, since no matter how elaborate the retrieval algorithm, it is going to be bound by the initial assumptions. For example, various algorithms have been proposed to retrieve scalar ε and μ for metamaterials, but this does not imply that the metamaterial under study is actually isotropic.
2000b). The expression of both g1 and g2 can be simpliﬁed if the parameter kz l1 l2 is real (for g1 ) and if k0 is real (for g2 ). 17c) In this case: • If kz l1 l2 is real: ikz l1 l2 + Ez 2E ikz l1 l2 = eikz l1 l2 z + e−ikz l1 l2 z + 2iImeikz l1 l2 z erf Ez + 2E ikz l1 l2 ikz l1 l2 z ikz l1 l2 z . , when the background is lossless): eik0 Rn1 n2 erfc Rn1 n2 E + © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ik0 ik0 + e−ik0 Rn1 n2 erfc Rn1 n2 E − 2E 2E ik0 . 19) 40 Metamaterials and homogenization of composites Once the scalar Green’s function is determined, the tensorial form of the Green’s function needs to be evaluated from Eq.