By I. I. Bigi, Martin Faessler
Time and topic are the main basic techniques in physics and in any science-based description of the area round us. Quantum thought has, besides the fact that, printed many novel insights into those ideas in non-relativistic, relativistic and cosmological contexts. the consequences of those novel views were discovered and, particularly, probed experimentally basically recently.In the papers during this complaints, those matters are mentioned in a really interdisciplinary model from philosophical and ancient views. The prime individuals, together with Nobel laureates T W Hänsch and G t' Hooft, tackle either experimental and theoretical matters.
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Extra info for Time & Matter: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Science of Time, Venice, Italy, 11-17 August 2002
29 Concerning the fine structure constant, we first have to mention that it is a result of renormalization while some more fundamental quantities are defined at the Planck scale. The origin of the electron and proton mass is different. e. the mass prior to the renormalization which is needed to reach the electron mass m for a real electron) and M is a "big" mass related to some combination of the Planck mass and the compactification radius (if we happen to live in a multidimensional world). In the case of proton the situation is different.
Walther, Phys. Rev. A 49, 402 (1994). 25. F. Riehle and J. Helmcke, in Ref. . 26. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, Opt. Lett. 24, 881 (1999). 27. S. A. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000). 28. J. Stenger, Chr. Tamm, N. Haverkamp, S. Weyers, and H. Telle, Opt. Lett. 26 1589 (2001). 29. Th. , Phys. Rev. Lett 86, 4996 (2001). 30. J. H. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 711 (1994). 31. R. F. C. Vessot et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980). 32. S. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2001).
Fortunately, we learned that the group of P. St. J. Russel at the University of Bath has long been producing similar photonic crystal (PC) fibers, and in November of 1999, we could finally try such a fiber in our laboratory. At that time, we had acquired a small Ti:sapphire ring laser (GigaOptics GmbH, GigaJet) producing pulses of about 25 fs at a repetition frequency of 625 MHz. 23 Launching about 170 mW into a 30 cm long PC fiber, we immediately produced a spectrum spanning more than an octave.