By Nicholas F. Borrelli
Examines refractive, gradient index (GRIN), and diffractive fabrication applied sciences. Covers the most important program parts for microlens arrays, from barcode scanning to digicam autofocusing. experiences the optics and fabrication equipment of microoptic components, paying specific realization to lenses and lens arrays and highlighting key functions. DLC: Lenses--Design and building.
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Additional info for Microoptics Technology: Fabrication and Applications of Lens Arrays and Devices
K˛1 X-ray energy shifts E for the ion ground state of ions with one vacancy of an outer shell as a function of the atomic number Z. 2 Characteristic X-Rays 80 90 Z Fig. 11. Kˇ1 X-ray energy shifts E for the ion ground state of ions with one vacancy of an outer-shell as a function of the atomic number Z. On characteristic points the electron configuration of the atom ground state and of the ground state of the singly ionized atom is given  the emitted radiation, leading to a broadening of the corresponding Fourier spectrum.
Corresponding to this mechanism for the origin of X-rays, it means that any two levels can combine and produce in this way a line in the X-ray spectrum. This is in principle true, but most level combinations can be neglected because of their low intensity as a result of different selection rules which can reduce the intensity of transitions significantly. The practical relevance of the combination principle consists in the circumstance that the observation of known X-ray lines and series can be used to predict new, as yet unknown spectral series or spectral lines by combining observed terms or lines.
2 Characteristic X-Rays Fig. 8. Asymmetry indices for the K˛1 and K˛2 lines of the elements chromium to copper (from ) 41 2 Physical Fundamentals intensity (arbitrary units) 42 4000 measured spectrum contribution Kb1 contribution Kb3 contribution 3p vacancy contribution 3d vacancy CuKb1 3000 2000 1000 0 8870 8880 8890 8900 8910 8920 8930 8940 energy (eV) Ca Te 3 10 20 30 40 50 Tl 0,039 eV 0,008 eV -0,008 eV -0,070 eV [Xe]4f145d106s1 - [Xe]4f145d10 0,007 eV Os Cs Ce Sr 0,01 Au 0,008 eV 0 eV 0,008 eV -0,023 eV -0,031 eV Pd Sb [Xe]4f145d16s2 - [Xe]4f146s2 Se As Kr [Xe]4f116s2 - [Xe]4f116s1 (0,008 eV) Zn 0,10 0,010 eV Si [Xe]6s1 - [Xe] Mg [Kr]4d10 - [Kr]4d9 Ar [Kr] - [Ar]3d104s24p5 [Kr]5s2 - [Kr]5s1 (0,001 eV) Al [Ar]3d104s2 - [Ar]3d104s1 1,0 [Ar] - [Ne]3s23p5 - [Ar]4s1 DE (eV) Ne EKa1(Z0+) - EKa1(Z1+) [Ar]4s2 10,0 [Ne]3s2 - [Ne]3s1 [Ne]3s23p1 - [Ne]3s2 Fig.