By Fabien Bretenaker, Nicolas Treps
This certain booklet offers an outline of the main and purposes of lasers enriched with quite a few illustrations. Being over fifty years outdated, lasers proceed to amaze us. Their functionality features are continually attaining new limits, and the scope in their functions maintains to extend. but, it took years of attempt by means of groups of physicists to remodel the elemental notions of Einstein into the 1st experimental beam of laser gentle. And historical past remains to be occurring as primary study is now prompted by means of its notable houses. This e-book addresses each features of laser mild, from its primary rules to its commercial purposes, at a degree fairly suited to highschool lecturers, scholars, and anyone enthusiastic about technology and know-how.
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Extra info for Laser: 50 Years of Discoveries
The energy required to excite the gain medium must be supplied with light. This light can be emitted by another laser (such as a gas laser or a solidstate laser) or by an arc lamp that delivers intense ﬂashes. 2). The main advantage of this type of lasers, which has made them very popular for years, is the fact that you can easily change the color of the emitted laser beam. Firstly, there is a tremendous amount of dye molecules, each of them able to emit in a given range of colors: simply select the right molecule for the desired color.
And rapidly found practical applications: they have been treating diseases (in particular, in ophthalmology) since the beginning of the 1960’s, drilling since 1965, cutting since 1967, reading bar codes since 1974. . If laser light is involved nowadays in a large number of applications, lasers did not desert laboratories. They are still a research topic, that aims at reducing their size, making them cheaper, shortening the ﬂashes of light they radiate, increasing the power they deliver or producing laser light in color ranges still diﬃcult to reach, such as far infrared or X rays.
This laser is one of the smallest lasers in the world. It consists of a cylinder made of semiconductor which acts as the material gain; the cavity is built by coating the cylinder with metal. Another strategy used to reduce the dimensions of the lasers is shown on the right: the laser cavity is built by suspending a thin layer of semiconductor (100 thinner than an aluminium foil), adequately pierced by an array of holes to form a mirror (Copyright CNRS-Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, Marcoussis, France).