By Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff
Over the past few years, there was a convergence among the fields of ultrafast technological know-how, nonlinear optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. those fields were constructing principally independently because the start of the laser, attaining notable degrees of functionality. at the ultrafast frontier, pulses of just a couple of cycles lengthy were produced, whereas in optical spectroscopy, the precision and backbone have reached one half in even if those achievements seem to be thoroughly disconnected, advances in nonlinear optics supplied the fundamental hyperlink among them. The ensuing convergence has enabled exceptional advances within the keep an eye on of the electrical box of the pulses produced by means of femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The corresponding spectrum contains a comb of sharp spectral strains with well-defined frequencies. those new thoughts and functions are commonly known as “femtosecond comb expertise. ” they've got had dramatic influence at the various fields of precision size and severe nonlinear optical physics. The ancient historical past for those advancements is supplied within the Foreword by way of of the pioneers of laser spectroscopy, John corridor and Theodor Hänsch. certainly the advancements defined during this ebook have been foreshadowed via Hänsch’s early paintings within the Nineteen Seventies while he used picosecond pulses to illustrate the relationship among the time and frequency domain names in laser spectroscopy. This paintings complemented the advances in precision laser stabilization built by way of corridor.
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Additional info for Femtosecond optical frequency comb : principle, operation, and applications
Solid Phases A single ternary phase, -, of the AuCu3 (L12) type was found near TiAl3. Like TiAl3, TiAl2, Ti5Al11, TiAl and Ti3Al it is an ordered form of a close packed crystal structure [1991Dur, 1992Dur]. Some more binary Al-Ti phases between TiAl and TiAl3 were not considered as stable phases in the accepted binary Al-Ti system. All solid phases regarded to be stable in the Landolt-Börnstein evaluations are summarized in Table 1. Invariant Equilibria A tentative reaction scheme was given by [1957Koe].
3 GPa [2000Sol]. A further ternary compound -5 was observed after infiltration by liquid Al at 1170°C with post heat treatment for 100 h at 800 to 1000°C [1987Sar]. The hexagonal lattice was established by TEM; the approximate composition “Al~4BC” resulted from EELS-data [1987Sar]. This phase has been also confirmed by [1989Hal, 1990Pyz]. From a detailed investigation of this Al-rich boroncarbide by X-ray powder diffraction, LOM and EPMA, [1992Via] suggested a formula of Al3BC rather than “Al4BC” and attributed a hexagonal cell; additional weak lines in the X-ray intensity pattern of Al3BC prompted a larger unit cell a = a0/ 3 [1993Gon].
Thermodynamics The thermodynamic data sets as used in [2002LB] allow approximate calculation of the ternary system. Without the introduction of ternary parameters, however, the homogeneity ranges of the (Ti)(h) and (Ti)(r)) solid solutions in this calculation disagree significantly with [1957Koe] and [1986Has]. For phases with only small ternary solubilities the calculated equilibria agree fairly well with those reported by [1957Koe] and [1986Has]. Using the thermodynamic descriptions of the binary systems [2002LB] with additional ternary terms of +120000 xAgxAlxTi J·mol-1 for Gbcc and (+8000012T)xAgxAlxTi J·mol-1 for Ghcp the ternary system can be approximately calculated.