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By Helmut Hofmann

This ebook deals a complete survey of uncomplicated parts of nuclear dynamics at low energies and discusses similarities to mesoscopic platforms. It addresses platforms with finite excitations in their inner levels of freedom, in order that their collective movement indicates beneficial properties ordinary for delivery methods in small and remoted platforms. the significance of quantum elements is tested with recognize to either the microscopic damping mechanism and the character of the delivery equations. The latter needs to account for the truth that the collective movement is self-sustained. this means hugely nonlinear couplings among inner and collective levels of freedom --- varied to assumptions made in remedies recognized within the literature. A serious dialogue of using thermal recommendations is gifted. The publication will be thought of self-contained. It provides latest types, theories and theoretical instruments, either from nuclear physics and different fields, that are proper to an realizing of the saw actual phenomena.

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Optical properties of dielectric materials are specified by the dielectric function ε(ω) which may be split into its real and imaginary parts by writing ε(ω) = ε (ω) + iε (ω). Any finite ε (ω) implies loss of energy of the elec√ tromagnetic wave to the medium. In such a case the index of refraction n = ε becomes complex (assuming the magnetic susceptibility µ to be close to unity). As in the case discussed before, the attenuation of the electromagnetic wave can be described by introducing a complex wave vector.

18) Here a small detour is in order to systems of dimensions d = 2 or 1, which may be realized for electrons in semiconductors, for instance. The equations from before are easily generalized to any d. Eq. i. 19) if Vd and dd k represent the volumes in d-dimensional space and k-space, respectively. i. would have to be chosen equal to 2. i. i. 21) with V = L and dk for the volume element in k-space. Notice that for d = 2 the dne is independent of energy. 1 Many-body properties in the ground state For the many-body ground state all single particle states are filled up to the socalled Fermi energy, or the Fermi momentum kF .

60) In such a case the nucleons would behave like molecules or atoms of a classical liquid–or like the ensemble of billiard balls mentioned above. 60) assumes the subsequent collisions of the nucleons to be independent of each other, which is actually not the case as we shall argue below. 60) is immediately understood if one realizes that λclass σ defines that volume in which on average a moving nucleon meets one scattering partner, for which reason one must have ρσλclass ≈ 1. 17 nucleons per fm3 , see below.

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