By Moshe Gitterman

This e-book comprises the final description of the mathematical pendulum topic to consistent torque, periodic and random forces. The latter seem in additive and multiplicative shape with their attainable correlation. For the underdamped pendulum pushed by way of periodic forces, a brand new phenomenon -- deterministic chaos -- comes into play, and the typical motion of this chaos and the impact of noise are taken under consideration. The inverted place of the pendulum might be stabilized both by way of periodic or random oscillations of the suspension axis or through putting a spring right into a inflexible rod, or through their mixture. The pendulum is likely one of the easiest nonlinear types, which has many purposes in physics, chemistry, biology, medication, communications, economics and sociology. a large crew of researchers operating in those fields, in addition to scholars and lecturers, will take advantage of this e-book.

**Contents: formula of the matter; Overdamped Pendulum; Underdamped Pendulum; Deterministic Chaos; Inverted Pendulum.
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**Sample text**

21) where C is the normalization constant. As can be seen from Eq. 21), for D2 < D1 , the term a0 + b0 sin φ makes the main contribution to Pst . In this case, for |a0 | = |b0 | , Pst contains a single maximum. e. Pst has main contribution to Pst is the term 1 + (D2 /D1 ) sin2 φ maxima at the points nπ for integer n. Additive and multiplicative noise have opposite inﬂuence on Pst [33]. An increase of multiplicative noise leads to the increase and narrowing of the peaks of Pst , whereas the increase of additive noise leads to their decrease and broadening.

One can illustrate [23], the importance of noise in deterministic diﬀerential equations by the simple example of the Mathieu equation supplemented by white noise ξ (t) d2 φ + (α − 2β cos 2t) φ = ξ (t) . 65) Solutions of Eq. 65) in the absence of noise are very sensitive to the parameters α and β, which determine regimes in which the solutions can be periodic, damped or divergent. 65), we decompose this second-order diﬀerential equation into the two ﬁrst-order equations dφ = Ω; dt dΩ = − (α − 2β cos 2t) φ + ξ (t) .

13), µ (0, T ) = 1 . 18) which is in good agreement with numerical calculations [63]. 2 Damped pendulum subject to constant torque and noise The analytical solution of the simple mathematical pendulum, Eq. 12) with γ = f = ξ = 0, has been considered in Sec. 1. If one adds damping August 13, 2008 48 16:55 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in General The Noisy Pendulum while keeping f = 0, Eq. 19) which describes a damped pendulum subject to the potential U (φ) = −aφ + b (1 − cos φ) . 20) In Sec. 2, the analysis of overdamped deterministic motion (neglecting the second derivative in Eq.