Download The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century by Gordon Fraser PDF

By Gordon Fraser

Underpinning all of the different branches of technology, physics impacts the way in which we are living our lives, and finally how lifestyles itself services. fresh medical advances have resulted in dramatic reassessment of our figuring out of the area round us, and made an important impression on our way of life. during this booklet, prime overseas specialists, together with Nobel prize winners, discover the frontiers of contemporary physics, from the debris within an atom to the celebrities that make up a galaxy, from nano-engineering and mind learn to high-speed information networks. Revealing how physics performs an essential position in what we see round us, this ebook will fascinate scientists of all disciplines, and somebody desirous to be aware of extra concerning the international of physics at the present time.

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Nonthermal relics The axion is a particle that would result from the breaking of a symmetry invoked to explain the lack of strong charge–parity (CP) violation. The axion mass is expected to be much lower than those of WIMPs, about 10−3 –10−5 eV. Axions would be produced in the early Universe around the epoch of the quark–hadron transition. If the axion scenario is correct, then axions should be abundant in the Universe in such numbers that they would be a serious contender for the dark matter in spite of their small mass.

Detailed model calculations must take into account questions such as the spin dependence of the WIMP–nucleus interactions, the angular-momentum dependence of the annihilation cross-section, and whether the WIMP can “co-annihilate” with any other particle species. Nevertheless, in all models a cold, thermal, relic, dark-matter particle should have feeble interactions with normal matter. Thus, a cold thermal relic might be detected in sufficiently sensitive experiments. 12. New constraints from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) in the Soudan mine.

The field has advanced rapidly with the capability of satellites such as BeppoSAX and HETE to measure the positions of these sources to high accuracy and on a rapid timescale, allowing followup at other wavelengths. The afterglows of GRBs span a very broad range from X-ray, through optical, to radio frequencies. In some cases, optical spectra have not only allowed redshifts to be obtained, but also revealed a connection between GRBs and supernovae. Because GRBs are so luminous, exceeding the luminosity of supernovae or active galaxies, they potentially offer a unique means of studying massive-star formation in the early, obscured Universe if they can be discovered in the redshift range of 6 to 20.

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