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By Dennis Guest

This publication analyzes the key affects shaping the Canadian welfare kingdom. A primary pattern in Canadian social safety over lots of the 20th century has been a shift from a ‘residual’ to an ‘institutional’ idea. The residual procedure, which ruled until eventually the second one international conflict, posited that the motives of poverty and joblessness have been to be stumbled on inside of participants and have been top remedied by way of own initiative and reliance at the deepest marketplace. even though, the dramatic alterations led to through the nice melancholy and the second one international warfare ended in the increase of an institutional method of social protection. Poverty and joblessness started to be seen because the result of systemic failure, and the general public started to call for that governments take motion to set up front-rank associations making certain a degree of security opposed to the typical dangers to livelihood. hence, the principles of the Canadian welfare kingdom have been tested. The Emergence of Social safety in Canada is either a tremendous ancient source and an engrossing story in its personal correct, and it'll be of serious curiosity to an individual concerned with Canadian social coverage.

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19 Following the Napoleonic Wars, an increasing number of immigrants from the British Isles came to British North America, and for many the conditions were very hard, particularly in the winter months when work was scarce and living costs were high. Public relief, where it existed, was likely to be meagre at best and often administered in a harsh and degrading manner. To save the 'worthy poor' from the humiliation of accepting public relief, to supplement inadequate public provision, or to provide help where municipalities were unwilling to do so, charitably disposed citizens would band together to provide the poor with the basic necessities.

5 The application of the Elizabethan system, with its most characteristic feature, congregate care for the destitute, was slow to develop in the frontier conditions of late-eighteenth-century Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. England in 1601 was a populous country with wellestablished communities, whereas British North America was sparsely populated and communities were raw, underdeveloped, financially insecure, and had a highly mobile population (given the movement of immigrants from Europe and the settlers coming in from the American colonies).

27 Perhaps it is not surprising that in a society where the liberal, individualistic values dominated, where the life and living conditions of the colonists owed so much to personal effort and initiative, individualistic explanations of poverty should abound. This, too, is part of our colonial inheritance. Political ideologies that have helped to shape Canada's social security system also have their roots in the colonial era. 28 Thus, French Canada and Latin America were 'feudal fragments' reflecting the 'feudal or tory values of the organic, corporate, hierarchical community' of Catholic, preEnlightenment France and feudal Spain and Portugal.

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