By Kathleen Kuiper
The tradition of China (Understanding China)
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Extra resources for The Culture of China (Understanding China)
As its first criterion for classifying syllables, the Qieyun takes the tones, of which it has four: ping, shang (here transcribed with a colon, as in pa:), qu (here transcribed with a Chinese Languages and Writing System | 55 hyphen, as in pa-), and ru, or even, rising, falling, and entering (“checked”) tones. The entering tone comprised those syllables that ended in a stop (-p, -t, -k). The rising and falling tones may have retained traces of the phonetic conditioning factor of their origin, voiced and voiceless glottal or laryngeal features, respectively.
The amazing military achievements of the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successors were largely due to their armies of mounted archers, who possessed great speed and mobility. After Genghis Khan’s death the Mongol empire passed to his four sons, with overall leadership going to Ögödei. Jochi received the west extending to Russia; Chagatai obtained northern Iran and southern Xinjiang; Ögödei inherited northern Xinjiang and western Mongolia; and Tolui was awarded eastern Mongolia. Ögödei dominated his brothers and undertook further conquests.
Tibetan Buddhism is an admixture of Buddhist teachings and the pre-Buddhist religion, Bon. Most marriages are monogamous, although both polygyny and polyandry have been practiced under certain circumstances, usually in order to keep an estate intact and within the paternal line of descent. Thus, the eldest son of a noble family would take a bride; and, if any of his younger brothers so desired, they were included in the marriage contract as junior husbands. Dwellings are commonly one- or twostory buildings with walls of stone or brick and flat clay roofs.