By Krista West
With out the several states of topic - the solids, beverages, and gases that make up our universe - the realm will be a really uninteresting position. States of topic are always altering shape throughout us: sizzling showers steam up the rest room replicate, gaseous water falls to the floor as snow, and liquid escapes from our epidermis to chill the physique. yet, as readers of this insightful new e-book will study, these items do not ensue unintentionally. "States of subject: Gases, beverages, and Solids" deciphers the technology at the back of those chemical states to offer a fascinating and eye-opening reference. This new name is greater via full-color pictures and illustrations, sidebars, a thesaurus, and a listing of steered sites and additional examining.
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Extra resources for States of Matter: Gases, Liquids, and Solids (Essential Chemistry)
The movements are just too small to see under normal conditions. How fast or slow the particles that make up a solid vibrate depends on the amount of energy they contain. That energy is measured in terms of temperature, or average kinetic energy, of the solid. Particles vibrate slowly when a solid is cold and quickly when a solid is warm. If the temperature of the solid increases to a TUNGSTEN The element with the highest melting point is tungsten. This hard, heavy, gray metal will not melt until its temperature reaches 6,192°F (3,422°C).
Each water molecule has two hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one oxygen atom (H2O). The hydrogen atoms share their electrons with the oxygen atom. As a result of the unique molecular shape that forms, the hydrogen end of the molecule has a positive charge and the oxygen end has a negative charge. The positively charged ends of hydrogen atoms are attracted to the negatively charged ends of nearby oxygen atoms in other water molecules. These intermolecular forces are weaker than the chemical bonds seen in ionic solids, but strong enough to hold the molecules together when water freezes to become a solid.
The Na+ cation bonds with the Cl– anion to form NaCl, common table salt. Even though the atoms are bonded together, they still maintain the positive and negative charges on each end. It would be very rare to have just one particle of sodium chloride. 2 In an ionic bond between sodium and chlorine, the sodium atom loses its outermost electron to the chlorine atom. The sodium becomes positively charged (cation) and the chlorine becomes negatively charged (anion). particles come together, the Na+ atom of one particle is attracted to the Cl– atom of another particle.