By Shahamat U. Khan
Basic facets of pollutants keep an eye on and Environmental technology, five: insecticides within the Soil surroundings specializes in the results of pesticide use at the caliber of soil. The manuscript first bargains info at the category of insecticides and physicochemical methods affecting insecticides in soil. subject matters comprise herbicides, fungicides, circulate in soil, chemical conversion and degradation, and photodecomposition. The textual content then elaborates on microbial tactics affecting insecticides in soil, together with fumigants, fungicides, and pesticides. The textual content examines the incidence and endurance of pesticide residues in soil and minimizing pesticide residues in soil. Discussions specialize in endurance, sure residues, plant uptake, brief residual residues, and removing pesticide residues. The textual content is a responsible reference for readers drawn to the results of pesticide use at the caliber of soil.
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Extra info for Pesticides in the Soil Environment (Fundamental aspects of pollution control and environmental science)
The potential importance of the ~ydrophobic fractions of organic matter for the retention of pesticides was cited by Hance (1969b). This type of bonding may also ~e largely responsible for the strong adsorption by soil organic ~atter of many pesticides such as DDT and other organochlorine insecticides. Lipids in the organic matter are the primary sites =or adsorption of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. As much as 20% lipid content is not uncommon for some peat and muck soils (Stevenson, 1966).
Adsorption of Specific Types of Pesticides Weber (1972) suggested that organic pesticides may be classified as ionic and nonionic. The ionic pesticides include cationic, basic and acidic compounds. The broad groups of pesticides classified as nonionic vary widely in their properties and include chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, substituted anilines 57 and anilides, phenyl carbamates, phenylureas, phenylamides, thiocarbamates, acetamides, benzonitrilles and esters. 1. Ion~Q pe~t~Q~de~ (1) Cationic - This group of pesticides generally has high water solubility and ionizes in aqueous solution to form cations.
Relatively new systemic insecticides include heterocyclic N-methylcarbamates, the most widely used of which is carbofuran (90). 3. 90 Organochlorines These insecticides are characterized by three major kinds of chemicals: DDT analogues, benzene hexachloride (BHC) isomers, and cyclodiene compounds. They are broad spectrum insecticides active against a great variety of pests. 1. VVT and analoguea DDT (91) ~as a very wide spectrum of activity among different families of insects and related organisms.