By Dr. Roswitha Wiltschko, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Wiltschko (auth.)
Biological results of magnetic fields were studied in lots of animals and vegetation. The magnetic fields have been of a large depth variety and, as alternating fields, of a large frequency variety and of various impulse shapes. results at the mobile point, on bio chemical tactics, progress and improvement, interactions with body structure, sensory enter, reflexes and rhythm keep an eye on, to call quite a few, were pronounced. quite a few magnetically brought on adjustments in habit have additionally been defined. lately, the volume of literature overlaying organic results of magnetic fields has been swiftly expanding. by way of now it has grown to such an quantity that it may possibly now not be coated in a single quantity. so much experiences specialize and concentrate on specific features and/or kinds of fields or results. for instance, the e-book edited via MARET et al. (1986) supplies an summary on organic results of regular magnetic fields, MISAKIAN et al. (1993) reviewed these of tremendous low frequency magnetic fields, targeting in vitro results. BERN not easy (1992) said on 'electromagnetic smog' in view of pos sible results on human wellbeing and fitness and future health, and a sequence of papers edited via AMEMIYA (1994) summarizes eastern examine on results of electromagnetic fields starting from extern ely low to ultra-high frequencies. TENFORDE (1979) and ADEY (1981) sum marized and mentioned tissue interactions, REITER (1993a) neu roendocrine and neurochemical adjustments linked to different types of electromagnetic fields. The booklet edited via KIRSCHVINK et al.
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Additional resources for Magnetic Orientation in Animals
G. BECKER and SPECK 1964). Magnetic alignments thus might be related to the tendency of many animals to avoid local disturbances of the magnetic field and unnatural intensities (see Sect. 2). The significance of the cardinal directions to bees dancing on a horizontal comb in the absence of visual cues is also difficult to understand. There is no great benefit in this oriented dancing, because the purpose of waggle dances, namely, a transfer of directional information, cannot be achieved in this way; only the distance to the food source is still indicated by the frequency of waggling.
Recent reports (DUELLI and DUELLI-KLEIN 1978; ]ACKLYN 1990), however, suggest that they might represent magnetic compass orientation rather than a mere alignment (see Sect. 1). 2 Aligned Resting Positions of Diptera Several common species of flies seemed to prefer landing directions which corresponded to the N-S or the E-W axis (G. BECKER 1963). These field observations led to laboratory studies in which the body axes of flies resting on a horizontal plane were recorded by photography under isotropic light conditions (G.
In particular, when the magnetic field is concerned, the situation is complicated by the fact that its use may be restricted to certain behavioral situations, and that it is normally used together with other cues (W. WILTSCHKO and WILTSCHKO 1991a). " (KIRSCHVINK and KOBAYASHIKIRSCHVINK 1991, p. 169 verbatim). This is an evident misunderstanding. What they really comment is the basic difference between passive alignment and active orientation based on information processing. The bacteria are merely rotated by their magnetic moment they are no more 'sensitive' to the magnetic field than a weather vane to the wind.