By Seiber, Witten

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Extra resources for Integrability

Example text

In fusion plasmas, the electrons are even weakly relativistic, so that some synchrotron radiation is also emitted. If electron temperatures in fusion plasmas exceed the ion temperature by a large amount, synchrotron radiation could exceed the fusion production, so it is desirable to keep the electron temperature similar to the ion temperature. 5 Cherenkov radiation Cherenkov radiation is emitted whenever a particle travels faster than the speed of light in the medium. In a plasma, energetic particles commonly exceed the speed of various waves, and hence emit some Cherenkov radiation.

31) In this space, there is one system which occupies the point r 1 = R1 (t), v 1 = V 1 (t), r 2 = R2 (t), and v 2 = V 2 (t) at time t. Note that this density is completely different from Ns in the previous chapter, where there we had the density of particles in a six-dimensional phase space, whereas here we have the density of systems (each of which has two particles) in twelve-dimensional phase space. Generalizing to N0 particles, we wish to describe N0 systems, each comprising N0 particles in a 6N0 dimensional phase space, using a separate coordinate system for each particle.

Deformed ....... normal path of .. .... integration contour . ... .. . σ . .......................... .. ... . ...... ............................ . . . ... .. ............................................................................................... • ................................................................................................................................................... Re(p) ... . ... . .. ........................ .. . .