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By Guido Fassò

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Sample text

Del pari, sul t�rr�� Wal,r, nessuno può ignorare, perché se ne sono avute rammatiche esperienze concrete, il caso di colui che è chiamato dallo Stato ad applicare una legge a cui la sua coscienza gli ordina di disobbedire. l?.. strettamente giu;;igi_ç_Q. �mono_ji_fficoltà gravissime: che sono, lo abbiamo accennato fin dall'inizio, quelle i:eì;tive· alla c�rtezza deL diritto. n_&�� i��cres­ . lto il giudizio sulla legittimità, e perciò sulla validità, d�lle leg$i pos��iy,t;, è fatale. che venga a �anc�r� ..

Si dirà: ecco, questi sono, fra i tanti, esempi di viola­ zione del diritto naturale; greci e romani, pur sapendo di governarsi, in questo campo, con leggi ingiuste, se ne servi­ vano perché ciò era conforme agli sporchi interessi delle loro classi dirigenti. E invece no: a nessun greco e a nessun romano, almeno prima della diffusione della filosofia stoica, sarebbe venuto in mente che la schiavitù potesse �ssere contro natura, e potesse violare il diritto naturale. Il più grande filosofo greco, Aristotele - uno dei maggiori pensatori di tutti i tempi, la cui morale poté essere accolta per gran parte dalla dottrina cristiana (e che, sia pure indden- 81 talmente, accetta l'idea del diritto naturale) - afferma che gli schiavi sono tali per natura e che la schiavitù è un istituto naturale esattamente come la famiglia e lo Stato.

Del resto, ��çhe quanto alla necessità che le leggi posi­ t �v: s}ano confo�! _ll:g� legg� naturale, occorrerebbe ;apere · f .. �1) Nella « Rivista trimestrale di diritto pubblico » del 1 95 1 ; POI compreso nel Vol. I I degli S tudi intorno al diritto, Padova, 1 953. che cosa questa esattamente prescrive. Si fa presto a dire éhe dalla legislazio�e dello Stato d�bbono essere rispet­ t�ti i diritti naturali e inviolabili della persona. Ma qu�i sono ues · Z. Su alcuni può forse anche esistere, in' un deter­ mmato momento storico, un accordo generale - o quasi ma su altri ben difficilmente si troverebbero concordi coloro che professassero fedi politiche o religiose diverse.

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