By David A. Dulio
Investigates the consequences of political specialists on American democracy.
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Additional resources for For Better or Worse: How Political Consultants Are Changing Elections in the United States
The foundation for the resurgence was in the parties’ expanded fund-raising base and increased receipts as well as their strengthened organizational apparatuses (Herrnson 1988; Menefee-Libey 2000). Both the Republicans and Democrats saw contributions to their coffers rise to their highest levels ever throughout the 1970s and into the early part of the 1980s. The levels of fund-raising by both parties only continued to increase through the 1990s and into the new century. 3). Organizationally, the parties created a permanent presence for themselves on Capitol Hill with their own national headquarters only a few blocks from members’ congressional offices.
Radio, television, and direct mail) speaks to the relationship consultants have with candidates and voters alike. In this final chapter I address what the specifics of relationships such as this mean for the representative nature of our democracy. Consultants’ attitudes about voters, candidates, and political parties will also be revisited, as these relationships are important links when discussing the effect consultants have had on our representative democracy. Further, the ways in which consultants can benefit different campaign actors, as well as democratic discourse, are addressed.
As an electoral context that was heavily reliant on political parties began to form, it was the early version of the party operative who set the campaign strategy and conducted the campaign in their area (Medvic 1997). A further difference between the time of the first managers and modern campaigns is that the direction of a campaign during this earlier period tended to be carried out more by a committee than by an individual campaign manager as in today’s elections. Moreover, these early “managers” mainly had limited roles in the campaign; for example, much of the canvassing that took place as part of the campaign was done by candidates rather than their surrogates (Medvic 1997).