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Optical properties of dielectric materials are specified by the dielectric function ε(ω) which may be split into its real and imaginary parts by writing ε(ω) = ε (ω) + iε (ω). Any finite ε (ω) implies loss of energy of the elec√ tromagnetic wave to the medium. In such a case the index of refraction n = ε becomes complex (assuming the magnetic susceptibility µ to be close to unity). As in the case discussed before, the attenuation of the electromagnetic wave can be described by introducing a complex wave vector.

18) Here a small detour is in order to systems of dimensions d = 2 or 1, which may be realized for electrons in semiconductors, for instance. The equations from before are easily generalized to any d. Eq. i. 19) if Vd and dd k represent the volumes in d-dimensional space and k-space, respectively. i. would have to be chosen equal to 2. i. i. 21) with V = L and dk for the volume element in k-space. Notice that for d = 2 the dne is independent of energy. 1 Many-body properties in the ground state For the many-body ground state all single particle states are filled up to the socalled Fermi energy, or the Fermi momentum kF .

60) In such a case the nucleons would behave like molecules or atoms of a classical liquid–or like the ensemble of billiard balls mentioned above. 60) assumes the subsequent collisions of the nucleons to be independent of each other, which is actually not the case as we shall argue below. 60) is immediately understood if one realizes that λclass σ defines that volume in which on average a moving nucleon meets one scattering partner, for which reason one must have ρσλclass ≈ 1. 17 nucleons per fm3 , see below.

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