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One or more laser diodes. This requires a gain medium that can store the excitation energy over a time of more than one cavity round-trip (which typically takes a few nanoseconds). Typical solid-state gain materials fulfill this condition very well, even for rather low repetition Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers 27 rates, because the lifetime of the upper laser level is usually at least a few microseconds, in some cases even more than a millisecond. Synchronous pumping (with a modelocked source), as is often used for dye lasers, is therefore rarely applied to solid-state lasers and is not discussed in this chapter.

Yb3þ :KGW and Yb3þ :KYW may be applicable in a thin disk laser, possibly generating tens of watts in pulses with <200 fs duration, but this remains to be demonstrated. , 2001) such as Y2O3, Sc2O3, and Lu2O3, which appear to be very suitable for high-power operation. , Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers 19 1989), but we do not discuss them here because they need cryogenic conditions. 1 DISPERSION AND NONLINEARITIES Dispersion When a pulse travels through a medium, it acquires a frequency-dependent phase shift.

Very fast effective saturable absorbers, suitable for the generation of pulses with durations below 10 fs, can be implemented using the Kerr effect. , the dependence of the refractive index on the light intensity) has a time constant on the order of at most a few femtoseconds. , in the gain medium lead to a Kerr lens with intensity-dependent focusing power. , 1991). For example, a pinhole at a suitable location in the laser cavity leads to significant losses for cw operation but reduced losses for short pulses for which the beam radius at the location of the pinhole is reduced by the Kerr lens.

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