Download Encyclopedia of GIS (Springer Reference) by Shashi Shekhar, Hui Xiong PDF

By Shashi Shekhar, Hui Xiong

The Encyclopedia of GIS presents a entire and authoritative consultant, contributed by means of specialists and peer-reviewed for accuracy, and alphabetically prepared for handy entry. The entries clarify key software program and techniques utilized by geographers and computational scientists. significant overviews are supplied for almost 2 hundred themes: Geoinformatics, Spatial Cognition, and Location-Based companies and extra. Shorter entries outline particular phrases and ideas. The reference could be released as a print quantity with ample black and white paintings, and concurrently as an XML on-line reference with hyperlinked citations, cross-references, four-color paintings, hyperlinks to web-based maps, and different interactive beneficial properties.

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Since the BA-tree aims at storing only the aggregate information, not the objects themselves, there are chances where the points inserted are not actually stored in the index, thus saving storage space. For instance, if a point to be inserted falls on some border of an index record, there is no need to insert the point into the sub-tree at all. Instead, it is simply kept in the border that it falls on. If the point to be inserted falls on the low point of an internal node, there is even no need to insert it in the border; rather, the subtotal value of the record is updated.

Box (Fig. box (Fig. 1c). To compute the dominance-sum for points in the first group, a recursive traversal of subtree(F) is performed. For points in the second group, in record F a single value (called subtotal) is kept, which is the total value of all these points. For computing the dominance-sum in the third group, an x-border is kept in F which contains the x positions and values of all these points. This dominancesum is then reduced to a 1D dominance-sum query for the border. It is then sufficient to maintain these x positions in a 1D BA-tree.

Area Collapse When going to smaller scales, higher dimensional objects may be reduced to lower dimensional ones. For instance, a city represented as an area is reduced to a point; an areal river is reduced to a linear river object. These reductions can be achieved using skeleton operations. For the area-to-line reduction, the use of the Medial Axis is popular, which is defined as the locus of points that have more than one closest neighbor on the polygon boundary. There are several approximations and special forms of axes (e.

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