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Af first, the field partially penetrates into the superconductor at some value of the magnetic induction below the critical magnetic field, thus creating alternating layers of superconducting and normal states. When the critical magnetic field is attained, the superconducting state is completely destroyed. Landau’s predictions were conclusively confirmed in a series of experiments performed at the Kharkov Physico-Technical Institute by Lev Shubnikov and at the Institute of Physical Problems in Moscow by Alexander Shaluikov.

I stayed for three months during which I visited physics laboratories in Leipzig, Munich, and Hamburg. I was pleased to see that Soviet physicists, and, in particular, myself, were being trained no worse than the physicists I met abroad. True, they had well-equipped laboratories, while the Soviet Union had no instrument engineering sector so we often had to make our devices ourselves or to buy them abroad, which was a heavy burden on our national economy. However, when it came to knowledge, undorstanding, and experimental technique, we could compete with the best universities in Germany.

The groups tackled the task of constructing new experimental apparatus, such as sources of alpha particles, 62 Encounters with Physicists and Physics beta particles (electrons), y-rays, and neutrons. These are the products of the radioactive disintegration of radium, which the Leningrad Radium Institute had at its disposal. Neutrons were emitted by ampoules of radon (a gaseous product of radium disintegration) and beryllium powder. The alpha particles emitted by the radon caused the powder to emit neutrons.

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