Download Elementary Order - Mendeleev's Periodic System by I. Petryanov, D. Trifonov PDF

By I. Petryanov, D. Trifonov

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Example text

Radium (second group), for example, is transformed into radon (zero group). The p decays are a more complicated matter. The mass of the atom, as is known, does not actually change (it was already known that the mass of the electron is about 1/1840 of the mass of the hydrogen atom). But the positive charge of the atom should increase by one u nit, because the electron carries away one unit of negative charge. Until scientists could acquire a clear concept of what a positive charge corresponds to, they 47 It is necessary to follow closely the travels of the descendants of a uranium atom along the periodic system.

In discussing the atomic mass, we ask you to keep in mind the following relationship: It has the following history. In compiling the very first version of his system of elements, Mendeleev took the atomic mass of hydrogen equal to unity. Then he compared all the atomic masses 53 of the other elements with that of hydrogen. It was decided at the International Organization of Chemists in 1860 to accept hydrogen as the basis for the scale of atomic weights. For almost half a century the lightest element, hydrogen, held this honourable post.

The one having the longest half-life) written under the chemical symbol instead of the atomic mass. The atomic mass of an isotope is the actual mass of an atom of the isotope, directly measured in an experiment using a mass spectrometer. It is never equal to the sum of the masses of the protons, neutrons and electrons that make up the atom. The bonding energy of these particles in the atom contributes a substantial correction. The atomic mass of an isotope is never expressed by a whole number. In discussing the atomic mass, we ask you to keep in mind the following relationship: It has the following history.

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