By Dan Botez, Don R. Scifres
This publication offers a complete evaluate of the elemental ideas and purposes of semiconductor diode laser arrays. the entire significant forms of arrays are mentioned intimately, together with coherent, incoherent, part- and surface-emitting, horizontal- and vertical-cavity, separately addressed, lattice- matched and strained-layer structures. The preliminary chapters conceal such issues as lasers, amplifiers, external-cavity keep watch over, theoretical modeling, and operational dynamics. Spatially incoherent arrays are then defined intimately, and the makes use of of vertical-cavity floor emitter and edge-emitting arrays in parallel optical-signal processing and multi-channel optical recording are mentioned. Researchers and graduate scholars in strong country physics and electric engineering learning the homes and purposes of such arrays will locate this booklet priceless.
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Finally, allowing for the natural tendency of positive-index-guided arrays to operate in the out-of-phase condition, one can place n phaseshifters in front47"49 of alternate array elements. 9 shows such a structure47: a variable-thickness facet coating ensuring a n phase-shift between adjacent elements, as well as the same optical-mode reflectivity. 44 succeeded in demonstrating such a device. 4 The quest for in-phase-mode operation: longitudinally nonuniform devices As a consequence of the difficulties encountered in obtaining stable, single-lobe operation from evanescently coupled arrays, alternative coupling schemes were devised for ensuring in-phase array operation.
28. Schematic illustrating the analogy of a ROW array to a second-order DFB laser. The lateral wave vectors ±h0 and ±h1 are analogous to the forward and backward waves of a second-order DFB laser, while /? is analogous to the (first-order) radiation component of a second-order DFB structure. Feedback is provided by mirror facets on the radiative component. (Ref. ) laser, while the longitudinal component f$ is analogous to the (firstorder) radiation component (surface emission) of a second-order DFB laser.
14. Top view of X-junction-type array. Typical branching angle 6 is 6°. (After Ref. 43. 3. Another proposal for stabilizing the array mode with increasing drive to was create a device whose in-phase-mode intensity profile is uniform to start with 77 ' 78 . 43 claimed that rendering the in-phase-mode near field uniform only has the effect of partially reducing its fundamental instability. Also, there has been no experimental support that the proposed designs 77 could indeed provide a stable array mode.