Download Complete Chemistry for Cambridge IGCSE by RoseMarie Gallagher, Paul Ingram PDF

By RoseMarie Gallagher, Paul Ingram

This publication meets the wishes of all scholars following the Cambridge IGCSE syllabus for Chemistry. up-to-date for the latest syllabus and the newest medical advancements, it covers all elements of the syllabus content material in an enticing and interesting structure for either local and non-native audio system of English. each one e-book is observed via a loose CD which supplies a wealth of help for college students, comparable to useful investigations, perform exam-questions and revision information. An accompanying Teacher's consultant and Revision advisor also are to be had. totally counseled by means of Cambridge foreign Examinations.

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Extra info for Complete Chemistry for Cambridge IGCSE

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This giant structure is the compound sodium chloride, or common salt. Since it is made of ions, sodium chloride is called an ionic compound. It contains one Na1 ion for each Cl2 ion, so its formula is NaCl. The charges in the structure add up to zero: the charge on each sodium ion is 11 the charge on each chloride ion is 12 total charge 0 So the compound has no overall charge. 50  These polystyrene balls were given opposite charges. So they are attracted to each other, and cling together. The same happens with ions of opposite charge.

Hydrogen A hydrogen atom has only one shell, with one electron. The shell can hold two electrons. When two hydrogen atoms get close enough, their shells overlap and then they can share electrons. Like this: two hydrogen atoms H a hydrogen molecule, H2 H H H a shared pair of electrons So each has gained a full shell of two electrons, like helium atoms. The bond between the atoms Each hydrogen atom has a positive nucleus. Both nuclei attract the shared electrons – and this strong force of attraction holds the two atoms together.

What signs are there that a chemical change has taken place? 3 Is it a chemical change or a physical change? Give reasons. 2 Why do atoms form bonds? The reaction between sodium and chlorine Sodium and chlorine are both elements. When sodium is heated and placed in a jar of chlorine, it burns with a bright flame. The result is a white solid that has to be scraped from the sides of the jar. It looks completely different from the sodium and chlorine. So a chemical reaction has taken place. The white solid is sodium chloride.

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