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By Tom Tolman, Richard Lewington

This butterfly advisor covers 444 species, with each one species totally illustrated with work of the male, woman and all significant varieties, kinds and sub-species. The textual content covers all taxonomic nomenclature, distribution, flight interval, edition, habitat and behavior.

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C. crispus is found mainly on shelving and horizontal surfaces, whereas M. stellatus dominates the vertical ones (Pringle and Mathieson, 1987). Substrata with intermediate slopes are populated by a mixture of both algae. In the mid-eulittoral, competition between Mytilus edulis and Semibalanus balanoides is the dominant biological interaction. Predation and herbivory are the main factors affecting space utilization (Menge and Sutherland, 1976; Menge, 1978a,b; Lubchenco, 1983; 1986). By clearing space, Nucella lapillus and other predators of Mytilus edulis allow the persistence of Fucus vesciculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum on semiprotected and protected sites, respectively (Keser and Larson, 1984a,b).

Herbivorous gastropods include Melagraphia aethiops (above MLW to ELWS), Risellopsis varia, Turbo smaragada, and Zediloma digna, while carnivorous whelks include Lepsiella albomarginata, L. scobina, Neothais scalaris, and Lepsithais lacunosa. Superimposed on the barnacle are a series of bands of algae, many of which are seasonal in occurrence. The most constant species are browns, Scytothamnus australis, replaced by S. fasciculatus on more sheltered shores, from MHWN to MTL, and Splachnidium rugosum from MTL to MLWN.

Sublittoral Fringe: A number of laminarians are characteristic of the sublittoral fringe, especially on steep slopes. Three species, Egregia menziesii, Alaria marginata, and Lessoniopsis littoralis, form a sequence with Lessoniopsis on the most exposed shores. Other fringe species are the laminarians, Costaria costata, and Laminaria setchellii and Cystoseira osmundacea (Sargassacea). Animals found in this zone include abalones (Haliotis rufescens and H. cracherodii), seastars (Pisaster ochraceus, Patiria minuata), and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus).

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