By Jean-Paul Sartre
Born in Paris in 1905, Sartre used to be a professor of philosophy while he joined the French military on the outbreak of worldwide struggle II. Captured by way of the Germans, he used to be published, after approximately a yr, in 1941. He instantly joined the French resistance as a journalist. within the postwar period Jean-Paul Sartre - thinker, critic, novelist, and dramatist - grew to become probably the most influential males of this century. He died in Paris in 1980.
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Extra info for Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology
The reality, he claims, is exactly the reverse. Consciousness determines the state, and the states constitute the Ego. For example, my immediate reaction of repulsion or attraction to someone is a consciousness. The unity which the reflective consciousness establishes between this reaction and earlier similar ones constitutes my state of love or hate. My Ego stands as the ideal unity of all of my states, qualities, and actions, but as such it is an object-pole, not a subject. ” (p. ” (p. 111) The interiority of the pre-reflective consciousness consists in the fact that for it to know itself and to be are the same; but this pure interiority can only be lived, not contemplated.
P. 104) When we catch a glimpse of an object, there may be a doubting consciousness of the object as uncertain. But Descartes’ cogito has posited this consciousness itself as an object; the Cartesian cogito is not one with the doubting consciousness but has reflected upon it. In other words this cogito is not Descartes doubting; it is Descartes reflecting upon the doubting. ” The Cartesian cogito is reflective, and its object is not itself but the original consciousness of doubting. The consciousness which doubted is now reflected on by the cogito but was never itself reflective; its only object is the object which it is conscious of as doubtful.
The logical arguments focus on three problems: (1) Is the idea of God as a Creator self-consistent and does this leave any room for human freedom? (2) Is there an inconsistency in the view of God as Causa Sui? (3) Can God exist outside a totality? In considering the concept of God as the Creator, Sartre uses artistic creation as a parallel. The book which I write emanates from me, but once created, it is in a sense no longer mine. I can not control what use is made of it or what people may think that it says to them.