Download Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds (Essential Chemistry) by Phillip Manning PDF

By Phillip Manning

"Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds" is going backstage of day by day chemistry to discover the atoms that govern chemical approaches. In transparent language, this intriguing publication exhibits how the interactions among easy components comparable to salt and water are an important to lifestyles in the world and the way these interactions are predestined by means of the atoms that make up the molecules. additionally, the tales of the scientists whose discoveries formed the trendy global, equivalent to Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein, are provided right here in gripping aspect. Brimming with full-color images and illustrations and more suitable via sidebars and a word list, "Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds" allows readers to discover the extraordinary discoveries highlighted during this ebook.

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Extra resources for Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds (Essential Chemistry)

Sample text

Because atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons in the nucleus had to equal the number of electrons. And that was the problem. The atom closest in weight to hydrogen is helium. An atom of helium weighs four times as much as an atom of hydrogen. Rutherford’s new model of the atom predicted that helium must have four protons, but helium was known to have only two electrons. Four positively charged protons plus two negatively charged electrons leave the helium atom with a charge of plus two.

A 4d orbital, for instance, has higher energy than a 5s orbital. This is unexpected. It happens because electrons in the 4d orbital are repelled by the electrons in the inner s orbitals. Consequently, it takes less energy to remove an electron from a 4d orbital than it would take to remove one from the 5s orbital. Knowing the energy levels of the orbitals enables us to begin building the periodic table—atom by atom. The lightest atom is hydrogen, which has one proton and one electron. So, into which orbital should that electron go?

Measurements showed that it was heavier than an electron but lighter than an alpha particle. Most scientists believed that the new particle was a hydrogen ion (a hydrogen atom minus its electron). The first person to identify the hydrogen ion as a component of all atoms was Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford had his hand in virtually every aspect of atomic research. By 1919, he had discovered alpha and beta rays, found a new element (radon), won a Nobel Prize for his work with radioactive elements, and demonstrated that atoms had nuclei.

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