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Silicon heterointerface photodetector, Appl. Phys. , 68: 3692–3694, 1996. 41. F. -T. Tsang, and G. F. Williams, Staircase solidstate photomultipliers and avalanche photodiodes with enhanced ionization rates ratio, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-30: 381, 1983. 42. J. N. Hollenhorst, Ballistic avalanche photodiodes: Ultralow noise avalanche diodes with nearly equal ionization probabilities, Appl. Phys. , 49: 516, 1986. 43. R. P. Jindal, A scheme for ultralow noise avalanche multiplication of fiber optics signals, IEEE Trans.

For receivers used in long-wavelength telecommunications systems, the improvement is typically close to 10 dB (7). The principles introduced here will be covered in more detail in the following sections. 0 10 0 Average received power (dBm) 166 40 Voltage (V) 60 80 Figure 4. Avalanche gain as a function of voltage for a pϩn InP diode doped at 3 ϫ 1016 cmϪ3 for several assumed values of the k ratio. The upper scale shows the peak value of the electric field at each voltage. The hole ionization coefficient ͱ is from Ref.

When the predicted ionization coefficients are plotted against the electric field, the resulting curves depend only on the ratio Eo /Ei when the axes are properly normalized. In Fig. 6 this universal plot is shown for several values of the parameter Eo /Ei. The Baraff theory has been successful in explaining the ionization coefficients in a number of materials including Ge (11) and Si (4), although sometimes requiring unrealistic values for the fit parameters. It provides a simple model for ionization that explains the general shape of the ionization curves and clarifies the underlying physics.

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